From the HBD Archive
From: sherpa2!CCASTELL.ELDEC%mailsrv2@sunup.West.Sun.COM (CCASTELL)
Subject: Wyeast descriptions
Date: 1992-07-09 21:05:00 GMT

Tom Kaltenbach asks:
> Does anybody have a copy of the description of the different
strains of
> the Wyeast liquid yeast cultures? The "brewing in the information age"
> issue of ZYMURGY (couple of issues ago now) mentions that this file is
> available on COMPUSERVE (I think it's called WYEAST.TXT).
Unfortunately, I
> don't have any way to access COMPUSERVE. Could some kind soul please
send
> me a copy? Thanks.

I'm fairly new to the Homebrew Digest (a month or so) and am not familiar
with such etiquette as repeating past postings. In the short time I've
been reading the HBD, I've seen enough messages that begin "I'm new..."
that it's probably safe to assume that quite a few readers haven't seen
the Wyeast posting mentioned above, so I will include it here. (I've
waited one issue to see if anyone else was going to post this.)

But first, I must point out that the Zymurgy special issue from 1989
was on yeast, and had a good article by Byron Burch entitled "Of Yeasts
and Beer Styles" that gives addition (subjective) information. I'd
type in the descriptions of my favorites, but I'm pressed for time
today, and don't know about copyright problems.

Now, here is the relevant information from CompuServe's WYEAST.TXT
(which as you can see, originated on the Homebrew Digest!):

FROM INTERNET HOMEBREW DIGEST NO. 742, OCT. 17, 1991:

Date: Mon, 7 Oct 1991 22:58:02 -0400 (EDT)
From: D_KRUS@UNHH.UNH.EDU (Daniel L. Krus)
Subject: Yeast and Spec. Grav's.

There's been a few questions lately about yeast and characteristics
associated
with them. Here is a retype of some information I received from Wyeast
relative to their yeast. This information was obtained a while ago and
supposedly this was to be updated and expanded. If anyone has the latest
update I would appreciate a copy of it from you since Wyeast wasn't too
tickled that I contacted them directly. Sorry if there are any typos.

(Information about NEW strains Belgian Ale [#1214] and California Lager
[#2112] contributed Jan. 23, 1992, by Beer Forum member Bill McKinless,
of The Home Brewery in Teaneck, N.J.)

YEAST CHARACTERISTICS

Some yeast strains are more active and vigorous than others. Lager
strains
in particular do not show as much activity on the surface as many of the
Ale strains. We provide an adequate quantity of yeast to complete
fermen-
tation with varying amounts of lag time depending on strain, freshness,
handling, and temperature. If you find it too slow, make a starter as
recommended on the package. In any event, a closed fermenter with an
airlock is recommended.

TEMPERATURE

The slow onset of visible signs of fermentation can be improved by
starting
fermentation at 75 deg. F (24 deg. C) until activity is evident, then
moving to your desired fermentation temperature. A few degrees does
make
a significant difference without adversely affecting flavor.

The normal temperature for Ale yeast range from 60-75 deg. F (16-24 deg.
C)
A few strains ferment well down to 55 deg. F (13 deg. C). 68 deg. F (20
deg. C) is a good average. Lager strains normally ferment from 32-75
deg.
F (0-24 deg. C). 50-55 deg. F (10-12 deg. C) is customary for primary
fermentation. A slow steady reduction to 32 deg. F (0 deg. C) during
secondary fermentation typically works well.

The fermentation rate is directly related to temperature. The lower the
temperature, the slower fermentation commences. Fluctuations in
tempera-
ture such as cooling and warming from night to day can adversely affect
yeast performance.

ATTENUATION

Apparent attenuation of yeast normally ranges from 67-77%. The
attenuation
is determined by the composition of the wort or juice and the yeast
strain
used. Each yeast strain ferments different sugars to varying degrees,
resulting in higher or lower final gravities. This will affect the
resid-
ual sweetness and body.

FLOCCULATION

All brewing yeast flocculate. The degree and type of flocculation
varies
for different yeast. Some strains clump into very lary flocculate.
Some
floc very little into a more granular consistency. Most yeast strains
clump and flocculate to a moderate degree.

pH RANGES

Typical pH range for yeast fermentations begins at about 5.1 and
optimally
4.8. During the course of fermentation the pH reduces to typically 3.9-
4.1 and as low as 3.1 in some wines.

ALCOHOL TOLERANCES

The alcohol tolerance for most brewing yeast is as least to 8%. Barley
wines to 12% can be produced by most Ale strains. Pitching rates need
to
be increased proportionally to higher gravities. Alternately, Champagne
and Wine yeast can be used for high gravities sometimes reaching
alcohols
to 18%.

YEAST PROFILES

Ales (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

1007. Our original Ale Yeast of German origin. Ferments dry and
crisp
leaving a complex yet mild flavor. Produces an extremely rocky head
and
ferments well down to 55 deg. F (12 deg. C). Flocculation is high
and
apparent attenuation is 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature:
62 deg. F (17 deg. C).

1028. British #2 (London Ale previously British Ale). Rich
minerally
profile, bold woody slight diacetyl production. Medium flocculation.
Apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 68
deg.
F (20 deg. C).

1056. American Ale Yeast. Ferments dry, finishes soft, smooth and
clean, and is very well balanced. Flocculation is low to medium.
Apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 68
deg.
F (20 deg. C).

1084. First considered just British, but now more specifically
Irish.
Slight residual diacetyl is great for stouts. It is clean smooth,
soft
and full bodied. Medium flocculation and apparent attenuation of
71-75%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 68 deg. F (20 deg. C).

1098. British Ale Yeast from Whitbread. Ferments dry and crisp,
slightly tart and well balanced. Ferments well down to 55 deg. F (12
deg. C). Medium flocculation, apparent attenuation 73-75%. Optimum
fermentation temperature: 70 deg. F (21 deg. C).

1214. Belgian Ale. (NEW) Abbey-style top fermenting yeast suitable
for high gravity beers, doubles, triples,and barley wines. High
flocculant strain which clears well. Apparent attenuation 71-75%

1338. European yeast from Wissenschaftliche in Munich. A full
bodied
complex strain finishes very malty. Produces a dense rocky head
during
fermentation. High flocculation, apparent attenuation 67-71%.
Optimum
fermentation temperature: 70 deg. F (21 deg. C).

Lager (Saccharomyces uvarum)

2007. Our original Lager Yeast Strain. Specific for pilsner style
beers. Known as many things, we call it Pilsen. Ferments dry,
crisp,
clean and light. Medium flocculation. Apparent attenuation from
71-75%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 52 deg. F (11 deg. C).

2035. American Lager Yeast. Unlike American pilsner styles. It is
bold, complex and woody. Produces slight diacetyl. Medium floccu-
lation, apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation
temperature:
50 deg. F (10 deg. C).

2042. Danish Yeast Strain. Rich, yet crisp and dry. Soft, light
profile which accentuates hop characteristics. Flocculation is low,
apparent attenuation is 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature:
48
deg. F (9 deg. C).

2112. California Lager Yeast. (NEW) Warm fermenting bottom
cropping strain, ferments well to 62 F while keeping lager
characteristics. Malty profile, highly flocculant, clears
brilliantly.
Apparent attenuation 72-76%.

2124. Bohemian Lager Yeast. The traditional sazz yeast from
Czechoslo-
vakia. Ferments clean and malty, rich residual maltiness in high
gravity pilsners, medium flocculation, apperent attenuation 69-73%.
Optimum fermentation temperature: 48 deg. F (9 deg. C).

2206. Bavarian Yeast Strain used by many German breweries. Rich
flavor,
full bodied, malty and clean. Medium flocculation, apparent
attenuation
73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 48 deg. F (9 deg. C).

2308. Munich Yeast from Wissenschaftliche in Munich #308. One of
the
first pure yeast available to American homebrewers. Sometimes
unstable,
but smooth soft well rounded and full bodied. Medium flocculation,
apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 50
deg.
F (10 deg. C).

Saccharomyces delbrueckii, S. cerevisac

3056. Bavarian Weissen. A 50/50 blend of S. cerevisiae and
Delbrueckii to produce a south German style wheat beer with cloying
sweetness when the beer is fresh. Medium flocculation, apparent
attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 56 deg. F (13
deg. C).

Wine Yeast

3021. Prise de mousse, Institute Pasteur champagne yeast race
bayanus.
Crisp and dry, ideal for sparkling and still red, white and fruit
wines.
Also can be used for Barley wines. Optimum fermentation temperature:
58 deg. F (14 deg. C).

3028. French wine yeast ideally suited for red and white wines which
mature rapidly. Enhances the fruity characteristics of most wines.
Optimum fermentation temperature: 72 deg. F (22 deg. C).

Malo-lactic Bacteria

Leuconostoc oenos

4007. Malo-lactic culture blend isolated from western Oregon wineries.
Includes strains Ey2d and Er1a. Excellent for high acid wines and low
pH.
Softens wines by converting harsh malic acid to milder lactic acid. Can
be
added to juice any time after the onset of yeast fermentation when
sulfur
dioxide is less than 15 ppm.




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