From the HBD Archive
From: (Tony Babinec)
Subject: adjunct grains & mashing
Date: 1992-07-10 15:04:09 GMT

The purpose of mashing in all-grain brewing is starch conversion. That is,
the starches and other large molecules in the barley malt are converted
by enzymes in the barley malt to fermentable and unfermentable sugars.

Most (unmalted) adjunct grains must first be simmered or cooked until
they are "gelatinized." If you can find adjunct grains in flaked form,
they are already gelatinized. I've found flaked wheat, flaked rye, flaked
barley, and flaked maize at either homebrew shops or health food sections
of grocery stores.

The gelatinized cereal or the flaked grain is added to the mash. You're
relying on the "enzyme power" in the barley malt to convert not only the
barley malt's starches but also the adjunct's starches. Thus, someone
on HBD advised a "mini-mash." Some brewers first perform a protein
rest at 122 to 131 degrees F for 30 to 45 minutes with the adjunct grains
added at mash-in before boosting to starch conversion temperature in the
low 150s.

"Specialty grains" include crystal malt, chocolate malt, black patent
malt, and (unmalted) roasted barley. Crystal malt is already converted.
The dark malts are used for their flavor, aroma, and color properties.
Thus, some brewers add specialty grains at mash out. Because they don't
need to be converted, extract brewers can crack and steep the specialty
grains in water, strain the grains from the water, and proceed with their

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